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State of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Communication across Network Address Translators (NATs)

Pyda Srisuresh, Bryan Ford, and Dan Kegel

March 2008


This memo documents the various methods known to be in use by applications to establish direct communication in the presence of Network Address Translators (NATs) at the current time. Although this memo is intended to be mainly descriptive, the Security Considerations section makes some purely advisory recommendations about how to deal with security vulnerabilities the applications could inadvertently create when using the methods described. This memo covers NAT traversal approaches used by both TCP- and UDP-based applications. This memo is not an endorsement of the methods described, but merely an attempt to capture them in a document.

Final RFC: Plain text

Early drafts:

Topics: Routing Peer-to-Peer Transport Layer Networks Network Address Translation Bryan Ford